2016-5-7 : EVIDENCE OF LIFE OUTSIDE THE EARTH – UPDATE

May 1, 2016 : Churchill College, Cambridge University, UK .

The answer to this age-old question may be closer to answering now than it has been for centuries.

Life is Everywhere - Convergence to Panspermia

From time immemorial our ancestors would have gazed at the magnificent spectacle of the Milky Way arching across the night sky and asked the question “Are we alone in the vast cosmos?” The same question continues to be asked in the present day.

If it can be firmly established that we are not alone in the Universe the implications for humanity will be profound. It could be even more important if it is shown that alien life in the form of microorganisms exist in our midst, perhaps continuously raining down on our planet. In either case, whether as alien microbes at home or alien intelligence on distant planets, the realisation that we will mark an important turning point in human history.

The much publicised scientific developments recent months – the Rosetta Mission to comet 67P/C-G, the New Horizons Mission to Pluto, a Russian billionaire’s support for SETI, and the Kepler Mission discovery of an “Earth twin” orbiting a distant star – all spell out a single cosmic truth. Homo Sapiens as a sentient species appears to be hard-wired to seek out its cosmic origins, perhaps intuitively sensing that we cannot be alone.

First and foremost we must ask the question: How did life arise? Not just on the Earth, but anywhere in the Universe? Does life emerge spontaneously on every Earth-like planet by processes involving well-attested laws of physics and chemistry? Or did the first-ever origin of life involve an extraordinary, even miraculous intervention? These questions are beginning to acquire a new sense of urgency in recent times.

The first requirement for the emergence of creatures like ourselves would be for the existence of rocky planets with water and an atmosphere generally similar to Earth. In 1995 Cambridge-based astronomer Didier Queloz together with Michel Mayor discovered the first planets outside our solar system. The first of these so-called exoplanets orbited a star 50 light years away in the constellation of Pegasus; it was a giant planet with a mass similar to Jupiter located too close to its parent star for any life to be possible. In 2009 NASA launched its orbiting Kepler telescope, which was specifically designed to discover planets which are the size of Earth. The detection process involved tracking down minute blinks (dimming) in the star’s light when a planet transited periodically in front of it during its orbit.

Within a few months of its launch the Kepler project, with a team led by William Borucki discovered 5 new planets with sizes ranging from that of Jupiter to Neptune and slightly smaller. The tally of these so-called exoplanets has steadily increased including amongst the detections a few Earth-like planets on which life may be possible. The most recent to hit headlines is Kepler 452b, a planet slightly larger than the Earth and orbiting around a sun-like star within its habitable zone, a region where liquid water on the planet’s surface and an atmosphere is possible. This new discovery has sparked off a huge wave of popular interest in the possibility of life existing outside our Earth .

Extrapolating from the sample of present detections the estimated total number of habitable planets in the galaxy is reckoned to be in excess of 144 billion! Most of these planets orbit very long-lived red-dwarf stars that are nearly twice as old as the sun. On many of these planets one might speculate that life may have begun, evolved, and perhaps long since disappeared.

Another related enterprise that has captured the news recently is the search for extraterrestrial intelligence using arrays of radio telescopes to scan the skies for evidence of intelligent signals. Over half a century ago Philip Morrison and Giuseppe Cocconi first drew attention to the possibility of searching the microwave spectrum of cosmic sources for intelligent signals and suggested particular frequencies as well as a set of potential targets. The SETI program (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) began tentatively in 1960 and was first supported by NASA, and later by a host of private or semi-private entrepreneurs. With the exception of a single brief and mysterious “Wow!” signal discovered in August 1977 there has been a deathly silence across all of the prospective sources that been scanned. There could be a case for saying that the lack of progress in this venture was the result of organisations like NASA backing off. This may have been the thinking behind Russian billionaire Yuri Milner’s 100 billion dollar SETI initiative that has just been announced with much pomp. Buying more telescope time, increasing the range of wavelengths, enhancing detector sensitivity and extending sky coverage have been argued as prerequisites if a breakthrough within a decade is to be achieved. But a positive result from SETI would be contingent on the emergence and widespread dispersal of primitive life capable of evolving into intelligent creatures. How often does this happen?

The idea that microbial life springs up de novo on billions of Earth-like habitable planets is an unproven, and most likely erroneous proposition. Such a belief is an extension of the canonical “primordial soup theory” for life’s beginnings on the Earth, which is a dogma with no hard evidence to support it. If there was a deep principle of nature that drove inorganic systems towards the emergence of primitive life, the evidence for this would have long since been discovered in the laboratory. With a whole raft of calculations showing grotesquely small a priori probabilities for the transition from non-life to life only two options remain. The origin of life was an extremely improbable event that certainly occurred on Earth (because we are here!) but will effectively not be reproduced elsewhere. In that case we would indeed be hopelessly alone. Or, a very much vaster cosmic system than was available on Earth, and a longer timescale was involved in an initial origination event, after which life was transferred to Earth and elsewhere by processes that present writer and the late Sir Fred Hoyle discussed many years ago – panspermia.

The discovery of microorganisms occupying the harshest environments on Earth continues to provide support for this point of view. Transfers of microbial life from one cosmic habitat to another requires endurance to space conditions for millions of years. The closest terrestrial analogue to this latter situation exists for microbes exposed to the natural radioactivity of the Earth. Quite remarkably microbial survival under such conditions is now well documented. Dormant microorganisms in the guts of insects trapped in amber have been revived after 25-40 million years. More direct experiments exposing bacteria and viruses to space conditions and discovering high rates of survival continue. Viruses mounted on the outer surface of a Russian sounding rocket and fired through the atmosphere were recently found to survive. All this goes to show that arguments used in the past to ‘disprove’ panspermia on the grounds of survivability during interstellar transport are seriously flawed.

Another lead in this story has come from the study of interstellar dust clouds that has been conducted over several decades. The list of organic molecules present in interstellar clouds has increased dramatically in number since their first discovery in the 1970’s and so also has their degree of complexity. Decisive evidence for complex aromatic and aliphatic carbon-based molecules (ring molecules and long chain molecules) exists everywhere in our galaxy, and even beyond in galaxies as far away as 8 billion light years. Whilst all such data still tends to be interpreted cautiously avoiding “biology” with the suggestion that we may be witnessing “primordial soup-type events” on a cosmic scale, it is cosmic biology that remains by far the most attractive logical option. This is further evidence of panspermia in action – the complex organic molecules in interstellar space being degradation produces of iterant bacteria and viruses.

Comets in our solar system have been the target of several space missions since 1986 following ESA’s Giotto successful mission to Halley’s comet. The Giotto mission showed clearly that the prevailing theory that comets are dirty snowballs had to be abandoned in favour of comets rich in organic molecules, and most likely also containing viable bacteria and viruses. More recent explorations of comets, culminating in the Rosetta Mission to Comet 67P/C-G, have yielded a formidable body of evidence all showing consistency with the existence in comets of the seeds of life. Interestingly a comet called Lovejoy has recently been found to be releasing methyl alcohol at the rate of some 300 bottles of wine every second. Undoubtedly the product of bacterial fermentation.

The reluctance of some scientists to endorse these discoveries lies not in the quality of the data but in a desire to maintain a conservative position in relation to life on Earth and its purely terrestrial origins. It is perhaps only in this way that public funding of their research projects (and livelihoods!) can be assured. Although the Earth was demoted from its privileged position physical centrality in the Universe over 500 years ago (and not without anguish) the trend to regard life as being centred on our home planet has persisted almost to the present day. But a paradigm shift with far-reaching consequences is imminent now and public support seems also to be growing.

During the past decade tantalising evidence of microorganisms currently entering Earth has accumulated, but has been largely ignored and not pursued. The currently available data was acquired from relatively inexpensive projects that involve balloon flights to the stratosphere and recovery of infalling cometary dust. The first in a series of such experiments was conducted by the Indian Space Research Organisation in 2001 and 2006 with staggering results – indicating an inflow of microorganisms at the rate of a tenth of tonne per year. Some years later a team of investigators in the University of Sheffield led by Milton Wainwright obtained very similar results. It is obviously of the utmost importance that these experiments are repeated by independent bodies but this has not happened so far. More expensive and sophisticated investigations need to be carried out even on the samples collected so far, if we are to prove beyond doubt that these microbes are unequivocally alien. The sad truth is that funding for such vitally important experiments is well nigh impossible to secure. Compared with other Space Projects for solar system exploration the budgets involved here are trivial and the scientific and societal pay-off could be huge. Our ultimate goal must be to confirm that Darwinian evolution takes place not just within a closed biosphere on our minuscule planet Earth but extends over a vast and connected volume of the cosmos.

Over the past few years there has been a gradual realisation that life must be a truly cosmic phenomenon; and many people who were antagonistic to this idea in the past are beginning to voice contrary opinions about what should be done to cope with the realisation that life exists outside the Earth. In Davos, Switzerland in 2013, the world’s business leaders and politicians met to discuss global risks and challenges that would confront humanity in the next 10 years. One of the top 5 global “risks” to be identified was the discovery of extraterrestrial life. This discovery it is reckoned would profoundly influence the entire future of humankind. The prevalence of life of any kind outside our cosy Earth raises issues connected not only with science, but with psychology, sociology and even religion. To some religious groups the realisation that the site of our “creation” was located outside the Earth may cause conflicts with theology. Earth-centred theologies and philosophies may need to be revised.

The discovery of intelligent life outside Earth, if that happens, poses the most serious problems of all, calling for fundamental revisions and readjustments of our perceptions about ourselves. Even the mere proof that such extraterrestrial intelligence exists will seriously erode our perceived position of unrivalled supremacy in the world. And if extraterrestrial intelligence is indeed found to be resident nearby, and contact thought imminent, the situation might become analogous to the fear that primitive tribes may have had regarding the prospect of encounters with more civilised conquerors.

There is, however, a practical application that follows if ongoing input of viruses and bacteria is confirmed. In the near future it will become clear that bacteria and viruses coming to the Earth from outside could sometimes pose serious threats of pandemic disease, not only to humans, but also to plants and animals. This is connected with an idea Fred Hoyle and I explored as early as 1979 – that most of the pandemics throughout history were driven from space with the arrival of new viruses and bacteria. With all the data that is currently available across a wide spectrum of disciplines, I believe there is an urgent need for the possibility of bacterial and viral ingress from space to be taken seriously.

PS  In the 5 days since this article was written,  the following article will be of interest to the reader :

“An Ames Research Center scientist, David J. Smith, will be responsible for developing the air sampler that will be utilized for capturing microbes.

Already, LLNL scientists have been using the LLMDA and DNA sequencing to study previously collected air filter and dust samples from the International Space Station in preparation for the research.

Developed in 2008, the LLMDA permits the detection of any virus, bacteria or other microbe that has been sequenced and included among the technology’s 400,000 probes – on a one-inch wide, three-inch long glass slide – within 24 hours.

The LLMDA version to be used for the space station analysis can detect 12,609 species, including 6,906 bacteria, 4,776 viruses, 414 fungi, 143 protozoa and 370 archaea.

space_station

After the study is completed, NASA could potentially consider miniaturizing the LLMDA or a similar instrument to use on deep space missions with human habitation, Venkateswaran said”.

2016-04-19 : Welsh Branch of the ESU (English Speaking Union)

EnglishSpeakingUnion

Professor Chandra Wickramasinghe, a pioneer of the emerging paradigm of life from space, spoke at a luncheon organised by the Welsh branch of the ESU (English Speaking Union) the Cardiff City Stadium on Tuesday 19th April.  The lecture was entitled “Evidence of Life Beyond Earth”.  The Chief Guest was Her Majesty the Queen’s representative in Wales, Lord Lieutenant Dr. Peter Beck.

The event was reported in the Telegraph on 20th April.

Attendees described the talk as “mind-boggling”.

2016-02-25 : The Japanese Tanpopo Project

The Tanpopo project will hopefully confirm the survival of bacteria in the near-Earth environment at the distance of the ISS orbit and thus verify earlier results of Cockell et al (1). More importantly, perhaps it will sample the environment outside the ISS for ambient or in-falling microbes that may be of extraterrestrial origin. In this latter respect it would significantly extend earlier attempts to detect and isolate microbes in the stratosphere at heights of 41km (2-5). The relevance of this work towards confirming the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe theory of life as a cosmic phenomenon cannot be overlooked (6).

1. Exposure of phototrophs to 548 days in low Earth orbit: microbial selection pressures in outer space and on early earth
Charles S Cockell, Petra Rettberg, Elke Rabbow and Karen Olsson-Francis
The ISME Journal, 5, 1671–1682
(2011)

2. The detection of living cells in stratospheric samples
M.J. Harris, N.C. Wickramasinghe, D.Lloyd, J.V. Narlikar, P. Rajaratnam, M.P. Turner, S. Al-Mufti, M.K. Wallis, and F. Hoyle
Proceedings of the SPIE Conference, 4495, 192 (2002)

3. Microorganisms cultured from stratospheric air samples obtained at 41 km M. Wainwright, N.C. Wickramasinghe, J.V. Narlikar and P. Rajaratnam FEMS Microbiology Letters, 218, 1, 161 (2003)

4. Did silicon aid in the establishment of the first bacterium?
M. Wainwright, K. Al-Wajeeh, N.C. Wickramasinghe and J.V. Narlikar International Journal of Astrobiology, 2, 3, 227 (2003)

5. Progress towards the vindication of panspermia
N.C. Wickramasinghe, M. Wainwright, J.V. Narlikar, P. Rajaratnam, M.H. Harris and D. Lloyd Astrophysics and Space Science, 283, 403 (2003)

6. Astronomical Origins of Life: Steps towards Panspermia
F. Hoyle and N.C. Wickramasinghe (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000)

2015-11-08 : Is this “ET Disclosure” from ESA and NASA?

ESA/NASA Important Video.

The truth is finally being disclosed but in a concealed form.  The discoveries of life-related organics on Comet 67P/C-G must be taken together with the recently reported venting of molecular oxygen and water in equal quantity as pointing to the possible action of cyanobacteria.

Also of interest is the discovery of ethyl alcohol in Comet Lovejoy, a fermentation product of microorganisms.  Most relevantly perhaps is the discovery that the first life on Earth (from carbon in zircons) is now pushed back to 4.1 billion years ago, a time when the first rocks on Earth were forming.

It is time surely to come clean and conclude that “Life is a cosmic phenomenon”.

Thank you ESA for pushing NASA to admit, albeit obtusely, what they should have known for a very long time. How could they hold back the truth that all your Rosetta/67P results are consistent with the hypothesis that Comet 67P did or does contain life. I believe DOES. Small steps.

Oct 9, 2015 : A celebration of Sir Fred Hoyle at the Royal Astronomical Society

2015-10-14 : “The birth centenary of the noted British astrophysicist Sir Fred Hoyle was celebrated on Friday at the Royal Astronomical Society with a one-day meeting of talks describing Sir Fred’s many contributions to 20th century physics”.  This post takes you to a fine report of the whole day’s event. I am honoured the writer, Cormac O’Rafferty, spoke highly of my own contribution.

Here is the report.

Aug 23, 2015 : Astrobiology Letter from Canada – Is Comet 67P a Carrier of Microbes in the solar system?

It has long been hypothesized that comets are one of the main carriers of DNA/RNA and complex molecules of life inside the Solar System.

Surely 67P/Rosetta offers an important opportunity that ESA must seize – and on THIS mission! NOT on a new mission sometime in the future.

When Chandra Wickramasinghe attended early design meetings on Rosetta as a principal investigator, it was well known that he brought the view that “life detection” experiments should be carried on each of the two parts of the spacecraft.

But in those days, just 13 years ago, the field of astrobiology was of limited respectability to the astronomers, geologists, chemists and physicists who dominated the focus of the early team.

Since the 2013 consciousness change with the Kepler Mission breakthrough discoveries and announcements, current probabilities calculate that every star in the galaxy most likely has at least one exoplanet and perhaps a large number have an exoplanet  in their “Goldilocks zone”.

This was strong evidence for the “life is a cosmic phenomenon” philosophy of  Hoyle and Wickramasinghe. NASA astrobiologist Dr. Chris McKay, is often heard confirming his adoption of this theory.

So have the local Panspermia processes already seeded most of the inner Solar System with desiccated viruses, bacteria and algae?

I believe so.

coughsneeze1[1]

Contamination

As for “contamination by humans”, we know over 500 different species of bacteria can be found in a healthy human mouth, with at least ten times that many viruses. An experiment with a probiotic yoghurt counted the number of bacteria exchanged in a 10 second “intimate” kiss – and found a whopping 80 million passed from tongue to tongue.

If that surprises you, did you know every whale on the planet excretes 1013 viruses per day in their feces.

No wonder the Space Station is considered contaminated. MARS itself has likely already been contaminated, even without humans taking our biome with us there on manned landings.

Dr. Chris McKay talks about asteroid collisions causing the ejection of microbes from a given planet with the possible transfer of life planet to planet, comet to planet. McKay is guiding us to learn that “the theory of Panspermia” is the best current guess for NASA’s short and long term planning.

This is the reason that “Seeking the Signs of Life” is “Difficult”, because not only are viruses very small and hard to remotely detect and classify, but even the larger particles such as bacteria and algae (diatoms) have similar (if not quite as challenging) difficulties.

NASA SearchforLife

At the Astrobiology conference in Sri Lanka last week, I talked with Professor Milton Wainwright, the biologist from Sheffield University in the UK. I was struck by his reaction when I pointed out new lens-free microscope technology which offers real-time bio-imaging (from a small and light device) which could allow much easier detection of viruses.

“Our tests in the stratosphere have been focused on larger particles typically algae (aka plankton; diatoms). The benefit of our focusing on these larger-sized particles has been that they are much less likely to have been lifted from the surface of Earth. Plus the particles we are finding are spectacularly interesting”, Professor Milton Wainwright .

sizeofparticles3

But comets as carriers? Many of us will recall reading that Sir Arthur C. Clark was most impressed with the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe Model but cautioned us that we would have to wait for the return of the short-period comet, Halley, in 2061, to confirm the theory.

Little did Clark know how quickly humans would be able to dance around the solar system jumping from one comet to another, taking samples and transmitting the results back to our control centres on Earth!

Chandra left the Rosetta team in frustration, around 2002, saddened that his advice seemed to have been ignored. But it now seems that many quietly heeded his input and raised their game. So we actually have a very sophisticated set of “seeds of life” detection instruments on Rosetta and Philae.

We do NOT have an instrument that actually detects a “moving” microbe. At least this is not overtly stated (MIDAS is very close). But the experiments on Philae and Rosetta together detect almost everything else you might wish to seek.

Chandra has been particularly intrigued with the MIDAS experiment which is operating at the virus–size level. It might not be able to deliver conclusive proof of microbes on this voyage, but this technology augurs well for the next comet visit.

Long Period Comets

My own particular request is for us to visit a long-period comet –similar to ISON 2 years ago. Unlike 67P, which orbits over just 8 years and in the plane of the Galaxy, the long-period comets have orbits of over 100,000 years and might well come in from adjacent stars. They also come in at a steep angle to the plane of the Galaxy.

The Solar System is at an angle to the plane of the galactic disk. This is almost certainly because the Solar system is not from the Milky Way. Rather it is now believed to be part of the Sagittarius Galaxy passing through the Milky Way. I believe the long period comets, if they come in from an adjacent star, or even from the Oort Cloud, can come in at any angle to the ecliptic – ie to the plane of the solar system. Whereas short period comets are always IN the plane of the solar system.

Typically the bulk of the long period comets, have been moving in the plane of the  Milky Way (at the constant angle to the solar system). So they usually come in at a steep angle.

Tilt of Solar System to Galaxy

I believe it is highly likely we will confirm life in the short period comets – as Hoyle and Wickramasinghe predicted. But finding life in a long-period comet would be even more significant, as this would be life not just from another star system but even from another galaxy – the Milky Way.

According to Wickramasinghe’s predictions, the whole Galaxy is a homogenized life pool, so it would be an exciting experiment to seek and discover life in a long-period comet, and to compare any of its RNA/DNA with our known Solar System RNA/DNA. Although we might predict differences in the life-form roots from the two separate galaxies, the inter-galactic contamination has been going on for a very long time, so it is unlikely there is any major differences between life in the two galaxies.

iBOL

I have recently learned much about the iBOL Project (International Barcode of Life – DNA classification project) and believe this will become very important. I will cover this in my next “Letter from Canada”.

Bill Smith

At AbReCon 2015

Astrobiology Research Conference

University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

21-23 August 2015

 

Aug 6, 2015 : New Scientist : Discoveries that would transform what it means to be human

I am happy to be able to report the rapid acceptance of Panspermia into academia. A new generation of astrobiologists  have embraced panspermia especially as it relates to the solar system.

Well worth scanning is this 1-page PDF from last Friday’s New Scientist.  New Scientist – 2015-8-8

Dr. Chris McKay, Astrobiologist at NASA AMES  gives animated explanation of panspermia.

As we visit short period comets like 67/P, the Rosetta Mission catches glimpses of the “seeds of life” without having a complete set of experiments on board.

The good news : as we have predicted, the complex molecules found are consistent with Panspermia.

organics_on_67P

We await MIDAS results from the Rosetta Orbiter, by PI  Mark Bentley. Even though he is seeing particles down at the virus size level, he is being conservative (encouraged by his peers) calling the specks “Dust”.

If only ESA scientists  would “dare to dream”, and announce the “dust” is consistent with the theory of Panspermia. Consistent with the proposal that viruses and bacteria are carried by Comets like 67P.  Let’s face it, accepting the existence of microbes in short period comets is not too far a leap from accepting the interchange of microbes between planets. 67P  is on a short 7 year orbit. Not much more mysterious than an asteroid.

We are not asking for  misrepresentations nor inaccurate statements  BUT the facts are that these specks on MIDAS  do seem to be  consistent with viral and bacterial clumps. If they are not microbial clumps and 67P has no microbes, then this really would be worthy of a paper.

Long Period Comets

But what if these were inter-stellar comets?

The Panspermia debate now switches to long period comets with orbits over 100,000 years.  Last year ISON was such a comet. Most think these comets are elliptical and come in from the Oort Cloud. But with orbits sometimes over 100,000 years there is some possibility that many are parabolic and even Inter-stellar.
But  what if these inter-stellar comets contain, and regularly bring to Earth, new types of viruses, bacteria or  nano-microbes (as yet unidentified nano- and picoeukaryotes) that are part of  the Milky Way biopool but new to the Earth?
It is possible to hypothesize that the galaxy is homogenized and that inter-stellar comets will contain the same galactic strain of microbes.  This is the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe Model and the basis of our calculations in a recent paper.
Because of the age of the galaxy and the probable evolution of microbes on bodies across the galaxy, the long period comets can be expected to be carrying microbes new to the defence systems of animals and plants on Earth even though they are part of the same galactic biopool.
In the future, an RNA/DNA sample taken from an advancing long period comet, might well be used to identify the star source and so the catalog of microbes contained within.

The Polonnaruwa Meterorite – a Fall 2015 Revisit by Canadian scientists

Email from Bill Smith to Haley Sapers 2015-7-10

Dear Haley :
Chandra writes : I will certainly send you (Bill and Haley) the meteorite sample – a porous piece of rock about 2-3 cm across.

Polonnaruwa

Before I send Chandra the shipping details, please confirm you are still ready to undertake this project. It would help if you could summarize the experiments you felt necessary. I am hoping you will use additional equipment and techniques.

polonnamay13big[1]

I am concerned over contamination and will ask Chandra to discuss the status of contamination of the rock with you by email.

coughsneeze1[1]

09-T03_MembraneFilters_T[1]

Once you are ready and have OK’d the project, I would like to track your progress in a BLOG. I think the global community will be very interested.

The following six (6) peer-reviewed papers represent what was completed, documented and published in 2013 :

1) Vol 21 No. 37 (a) published 10-1-2013 Fossil Diatoms in a new Carbonaceous Meteorite
Abstract : We report the discovery for the first time of diatom frustules in a carbonaceous meteorite that fell in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka on 29 December 2012.
Contamination is excluded by the circumstance that the elemental abundances within the structures match closely with those of the surrounding matrix. There is also evidence of structures morphologically similar to red rain cells that may have contributed to the episode of red rain that followed within days of the meteorite fall. The new data on “fossil” diatoms provide strong evidence to support the theory of cometary panspermia.
2) Vol 21 No. 38 (b) published 13-1-2013 On the Cometary Origin of the Polonnaruwa Meteorite
Abstract : The diatoms discovered in the Polonnaruwa meteorite are interpreted as originating in comets and the dust in interstellar space. The exceptionally porous structure of the Polonnaruwa meteorite points to it being a recently denuded cometary fragment. Microorganisms that were present in a freeze-dried state within pores and cavities may have survived entry to be added to the terrestrial biosphere.
We conclude by reporting that an extract from the interior of a Polonnaruwa meteorite sample, studied under a light microscope at the Medical Research Institute in Colombo, was found to contain living diatoms (See Fig.4). If this result is confirmed in future studies and contamination is excluded, the meteorite would have been shown to contain both fossil as well as living microbes, and panspermia thus demonstrated in real time.
3) Vol 21 No. 39 © published 4-2-2013 Authenticity of the Life Bearing Polonnaruwa Meteorite
Abstract : We show that the Polonnaruwa stones that were collected on 29 December 2012 following a witnessed fireball, in which we found biological structures, do not possess properties that are consistent with fulgurites on the basis of X-ray diffraction studies, and other data. The existence of distinct diatom frustules fused into the rock matrix makes recent contamination unlikely. Contamination
4) Vol 21 No. 40 (d) published 8-2-2013 Living Diatoms In Polonnaura Meteorite – Possible Link to Red and Yellow Rain
Abstract : Meteoroids belonging to a cometary meteor stream, upon entering the atmosphere, could undergo hierarchical fragmentation, and the smallest micron-sized dust might serve to nucleate rain. The larger fragments that survive passage through the atmosphere may end up as the spray of meteorites such as were collected in Sri Lanka on 29th December 2012 and 3rd January 2013. We show tentative evidence for the presence a wide range of genera and species of diatoms which are living, in addition to those discovered in SEM studies that are fossilised.
5) Vol 22 No. 2 published 5-3-2013 Oxygen Isotope, Crystalline and Biological Composition
Abstract: Results of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, Triple Oxygen Isotope analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) studies are presented for stone fragments recovered from the North Central Province of Sri Lanka following a witnessed fireball event on 29 December 2012.
The existence of numerous nitrogen depleted highly carbonaceous fossilized biological structures fused into the rock matrix is inconsistent with recent terrestrial contamination.
Oxygen isotope results compare well with those of CI and CT-like chondrites but are inconsistent with the fulgurite hypothesis.
6) Vol 22 No. 1 published 5-3-2013 INCIDENCE OF LOW DENSITY METEOROIDS OF THE POLONNARUWA-TYPE.
Abstract : The ingress of micrometeorites of cometary origin with densities below ~ 1 g cm-3 into the Earth could average at least 5 tonne per day. Although much of this is burnt upon entry through the atmosphere as meteors, a non-trivial fraction (~10%) which have sizes of ~ 1

Notes on 2013 experiments on the the Polonnaruwa meterorite

From: Richard Hoover [mailto:entogonia@aol.com]
Sent: May 21, 2013 3:32 PM
To: <wesmith@outlook.com>; <wesmith@outlook.com>
Subject: Re: Confidential – Jan/Feb 2013 Polonnaruwa Meteorite analysis results

Dear Bill,

Your summary is not entirely correct.

1. Nitrogen analysis.

I personally conducted the study of nitrogen levels present in diatoms, cyanobacterial filaments, Hystrichospheres and actriarch fossils that I found embedded in the Polonnaruwa stones that O personally collected in Sri Lanka. These studies were carried out at NASA/MSFC and at Cardiff University in collaboration with Prof. Wickramasinghe and other members of the team.

The stones contained clearly biological forms that did not contain detectable nitrogen levels.

1. This is not Necessary for the forms to be indigenous to the stones rather than contaminants. If the diatoms & Cyanobacteria had lived on the parent body and died in the last hundred thousand years or so, then they could contain nitrogen and still be extraterrestrial.

2. The absence of nitrogen in Biological remains in the stones is SUFFICIENT to establish that these remains are NOT MODERN CONTAMINANTS.

The Polonnaruwa stones fell on Dec. 29, 2012. Any microbes that entered the stones after they fell would contain detectable levels of Nitrogen. That also applies to the other carbonaceous meteorites that I have examined. Alais fell in 1806— only a little over 200 years ago. The loss of Nitrogen requires geological time periods (millions of years) rather than weeks or centuries.

The other tests 2, 3, and 4 are not necessary to conclude that the fossils in Polonnaruwa are indigenous. Those studies have been performed by many other researchers on a wide variety ofCI1 and CM2 meteorites that also contain fossils that lack nitrogen. Those remains have also been dismissed as recent contaminants—with no effort to answer the problems posed by the missing biomolecules—which would certainly be present if the stones contained post arrival biological remains.

You did not answer my question in the prior e-mail. Did you ask Caleb or any of the other critics how they can explain the absence of these life critical biomolecules in stones contaminated after they landed by living terrestrial microbes? I have discussed this problem with prominent biochemists and microbiologists and have yet to hear any Answer whatsoever.

Yours,

Richard
Bill Smith

William E. (Bill) Smith
Reseach Fellow
Institute for the Study of Panspermia and Astroeconomics
c/o KBP, 4-1-7/8F
No.801, Kagano, Ogaki-City
Gifu 503-0006, Japan

Life is a Cosmic Phenomenon

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